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General Parts of Speech

Part of SpeechKoreanDescription
Nouns 명사 (myeong-sa)Words representing people, places, things, or concepts.

Bag : 가방 (ga-bang)
thing : 것 (geot)
Apple : 사과 (sa-gwa)

Goto basic nouns in 1800 basic korean dictionary
Pronouns 대명사 (daemyeong-sa)Words used to replace nouns for avoidance of repetition. Includes formal and informal forms.

I, me : 저 (jeo)
this: 이것(i-geot)
Verbs 동사 (dong-sal)Action words indicating what the subject is doing. Verb forms change for tense, mood, and honorifics.

eat : 먹다 (meok-da)
play : 놀다(nol-da)
Adjectives 형용사 (hyeongyong-sa)Words describing characteristics or qualities of nouns. Adjective forms change for tense and politeness.

big : 크다 (keu-da)
cold : 춥다(chup-dda)
Adverbs 부사 (bu-sa)Words modifying verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

quickly : 빨리 (ppal-li)
a lot of : 많이(ma-ni)
Determiners한정사 (hanjeong-sa)Words specifying the noun they modify, including articles, demonstratives, and quantifiers.

this, that, that (far from speaker) : 이 (i), 그 (geu), 저 (jeo)
Conjunctions 접속사 (jeopsok-sa)Words connecting different parts of a sentence.

And : 그리고 (geu-ri-go)
Therefore : 그러므로 (geu-reu-meu-ro)
Prepositions 전치사 (jeonchi-sa)Words indicating relationships between nouns and other elements.

At, from : 에 (e), 에서 (e-seo)

*** Very Important
조사 (jo-sa)Added to words to indicate grammatical roles and relationships. Essential for Korean grammar.

가(ga)/이(i) : subject's particle
를(reul)/을(eul) : subject's particle
과(gwa)/와(wa) : With Compatible
로(ro)/으로(eu-ro) " To compatible
에(e) : at/in/on compatible
Interjections감탄사 (gamtan-sa)Expressions of emotion, conveying feelings like surprise, joy, or annoyance.

Wow!: 와 (wa)
Ah! : 아(a)
Ouch!: 아이구(a-i-gu)
Oh my : 어머(eo-meo) women oriented ...
Ending Suffix

*** Very Important
*** Below described in detail.
어미(eo-mi)a letter added to the end of a word that change its meaning and mood, tenses etc..

습니다(seum-ni-da), 어요(eo-yo), 니(ni)?, 나요(na-yo)?
Korean, like any language, employs a variety of parts of speech to convey meaning and structure sentences. Most important thing to learn korean is to learn understanding of ending syllables oriented language.


Most important Part is “Ending suffix” in korean language speech

In the Korean language, ending suffixes (also known as grammatical endings or verb endings) play a pivotal role in determining the tense, mood, politeness, and other grammatical aspects of a sentence. These suffixes are attached to verbs, adjectives, and other parts of speech to convey a wide range of meanings and nuances. Let’s explore the significance of ending suffixes in Korean:

1. Tense: Ending suffixes are used to indicate the tense of a sentence, whether it’s in the past, present, or future. For example:

  • ~았/었 (~at/~eot): Past tense marker
  • ~겠 (~get): Future tense marker

    ex) 가시어요?  => 겠 is future tense marker. 가 is to go meaning verb.

2. Politeness: Korean is characterized by its complex system of politeness levels. Ending suffixes are employed to reflect the level of politeness when addressing someone. For example:

  • ~요 (~yo): Polite ending
  • -~십니다 (~sim-ni-da): Very polite ending

    ex) 가시?  => 요 is politeness marker and ending. 가 is to go meaning verb.

3. Honorifics: To show respect to someone of higher social status, honorific endings are utilized. These suffixes elevate the language to show deference and respect. For example:

  • ~시 (~si): Honorific marker

    ex) 가?  => 시 is honorific marker. 가 is to go meaning verb.

4. Mood: Ending suffixes can convey the mood of a sentence, indicating whether it’s a question, a statement, or a command. For example:

  • ~냐? (~nya?): Question ending in casual speech
  • ~세요 (~seyo): Command ending in polite speech 

    ex) 가?  => 냐 is question ending and casual marker. 가 is to go meaning verb.

5. Negation: Negation is often expressed through ending suffixes. These suffixes are attached to verbs and adjectives to create negative sentences. For example:

  • ~지 않다 (~ji an-hda): not to do

    ex) 가지 않다  => 지 않다 is not to do marker. 가 is to go meaning verb.

6. Conditional and Hypothetical: Ending suffixes are employed to express conditions and hypothetical situations. These suffixes indicate the condition under which an action will occur. For example:

  • ~으면 (~eu-myeon): If

    ex) 갔으면(갔다 + 으면)  => 으면 is if marker. 가 is to go meaning verb. 갔다 means past tense of to go. 
        Generally “ㅆ”  indicates the past tense.
     ex1) 워터파크에 갔으면 좋겠어. (Wo-teo-pak-e gat-eu-myeon joh-ges-seo.)
          I wish we had gone to the water park.

7. Causative: Causative endings indicate that the subject causes an action to happen. For example:

  • ~게 하다 (~ge ha-da): To make someone do

    ex) 가게하다(가다 + 게하다)  => 게하다 is to cause someone to go or do something. 가 is to go meaning verb. 
        Generally “게하다”  indicates casuative nuance to the verb “가다(gada)”.
     ex1) 친구를 교회에 가게했어요. (Chin-gu-reul gyo-hoe-e ga-gae hae-sseo-yo.)
        I made my friend go to the church.

8. Connective: Ending suffixes are also used to connect clauses in compound sentences. They enable smooth transitions between different parts of a narrative.

      ex) ~고 (go):

         This ending suffix is often used to connect two related actions or clauses. It can be translated as “and” or “so.”
       – 밖에 비가 오 우산을 가져가지 않아서 젖었어요.
        (Bakke bi-ga ogo usan-eul gajyeogaji anhaseo jeojeosseoyo.)
        It was raining outside, and I got wet because I didn’t bring an umbrella.

      ex) ~아/어서 (a/eo-seo):
      This ending is used to indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between two clauses. It’s translated as “so” or “therefore.”
     – 시간이 없어서 영화를 못 봤어요.
       (Sigan-i eobseoseo yeonghwa-reul mot bwasseoyo.)
       I didn’t watch the movie because I didn’t have time.

 Another ~지만(ji-man), 아/어서는(a/eo-seo-neun), ~(으)면서(eu-myun-seo) exists in this category.


9. Emphasis: Certain ending suffixes emphasize or highlight specific aspects of a sentence, such as the subject or the action being taken.

       ex)  ~만 (man):
             This suffix can be used to emphasize that the mentioned action is the only thing done or the minimum requirement. It’s often used with the subject marker 이/가 (i/ga).

    • 마셨어요. (Mulman masyeosseoyo.)
      (They) only drank water.

  1.   ~조차 (-jocha):
      This suffix is used to emphasize that the action before it is surprising or unexpected, but it actually happened.
    • 날씨가 추운데 눈 조차 안 옵니다. (Nalssiga chuunde nun jocha an oemnida.)
      The weather is cold, and not even the snow comes down. 

            ~나마나 (-namana):
            This suffix is used to emphasize a feeling, action, or situation that is undesirable or not preferred.

    • 공부하나마나 계속 늦잠 자요. (Gongbuhana mana gyesok neujeom jayo.)

      (They) keep oversleeping instead of studying.

In Korean, the selection of the appropriate ending suffix is crucial for accurately conveying the intended meaning of a sentence. Mastery of these suffixes is essential for effective communication and proper understanding of Korean grammar. The intricate system of ending suffixes contributes to the richness and precision of the language.